Yukio Mishima (三島 由紀夫 Mishima Yukio) is the pen name of Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡 公威 Hiraoka Kimitake, January 14, 1925 – November 25, 1970), a Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, model, film director, nationalist, and founder of the Tatenokai. Mishima is considered one of the most important Japanese authors of the 20th century. He was considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1968, but the award went to his countryman Yasunari Kawabata. His works include the novels Confessions of a Mask and The Temple of the Golden Pavilion, and the autobiographical essay Sun and Steel. His avant-garde work displayed a blending of modern and traditional aesthetics that broke cultural boundaries, with a focus on sexuality, death, and political change.
Mishima was active as a nationalist and founded his own right-wing militia, the Tatenokai. In 1970, he and four other members of his militia attempted a coup d’état when they seized control of a Japanese military base and took the commander hostage, then tried and failed to inspire a coup to restore the Emperor’s pre-war powers, in accordance with Mishima’s conceptualization of the Kokutai. Mishima then committed ritual suicide by seppuku. The coup attempt became known as the “Mishima Incident”